Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease that is known to be the cause of high mortality and morbidity worldwide. It can lead to numerous complications affecting multiple organs including eyes, kidneys, heart, brain and many more. There are many types of Diabetes, however, type 1 and 2, as well as gestational diabetes, are commonly affecting the general population. As the topic suggests, this article would dive deeper into type 1 diabetes that is more common amongst western population due to genetic factor. The pathophysiology is due to the autoimmune nature of the condition attacking the pancreas leading to reduce the production of insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is essential for regulating the glucose level in the human body. It reduces glucose in the blood to a normal level by preventing more regeneration of glucose in the liver, keeping it in human cells for it to serve as energy/ fat.  So, it is a disease of a progressively regressive pancreatic function specifically the Beta islet cells leading to reduction of insulin hormone level.

The answer to the above question is very controversial. Some say that it is possible and some never agree to it. Insulin injection has always been the gold standard treatment for Diabetes type 1. Since the disease is due to failed production of insulin by the pancreas, scientists figured that we can just inject insulin to fill in the depleting hormone. After many years of investment and research, multiple pharmaceutical companies have come out with many types of insulin to help with the treatment of diabetic patients. This is very essential to prevent complications that can happen acutely or chronically. Without adequate insulin, patients may suffer from diabetic ketoacidosis acutely and this is very fatal. Patients will experience feeling nauseous, episodic vomiting, tired, severe dehydration and finally in worst-case scenario, they may fall into a vegetative state. When there is no insulin, glucose level will be high and blood will be so concentrated that it can lead to hyperviscosity. This condition is totally a nightmare to diabetic patients as it can cause stroke and infarction of multiple organs.

Eliminating the routine blood sugar monitoring and injection of exogenous insulin is a dream to every diabetic type 1 patient and pancreatic transplant has proven to be efficacious. There are various indications for the surgery. Strict criteria for the patient is essential to allow better judgement so that the benefits would outweigh the risks of surgery. For example, patients with end-stage kidney disease who are undergoing kidney transplant would benefit from concomitant pancreatic transplant to promote better kidney health. Apart from that, patients who frequently suffer from acute metabolic complications such as low sugar level, high sugar level, or diabetic ketoacidosis and emotionally not accepting the usage of exogenous insulin. Nevertheless, this form of treatment sounds too good to be true. The surgery is very risky and patients need to be on a lifelong steroid to prevent rejection as well as the cruel nature of the autoimmune disease that may disrupt the transplanted organ.

Currently, scientists are still developing various ways to treat diabetic type 1 patients. Islet transplantation as well as an immunosuppressive agent that would target the beta islet antibody or anti-insulin. In the meantime, we are left to rely on the usage of exogenous insulin as the main treatment of the disease. To learn for more information regarding the treatment of Diabetes type 1, Treatments by Doctoroncall is a great platform.